Self-Efficacy & Motivation
People with high levels of self-reinforcing self-talk:
- have more positive self-esteem
- more frequent automatic positive self statements
- and improved self-efficacy
Self-reactions, including behavioural reactions involve self-praise or criticism, which often presents itself in the form of self-talk. Wishful thinking and self-blame can manifest when confronted with challenging contexts. Negative self-talk through reactions such as self-blame and criticism, can decrease self-regulated learning by reducing self-efficacy, and ultimately motivation.
Motivation is sustained by “continuing self-perceptions of self-efficacy when performing a specific task” (Zimmerman, 1989).
Appraisals influence self-efficacy, resulting from comparisons between goals and self-perceptions of achieving those goals. Changing an appraisal from low to high self-efficacy can regulate emotional responses in future contexts.
Appraising a test as achievable, rather than daunting, may eliminate test anxiety before it begins.
When studying for a test instead of saying..
“This test is going to be so hard, I am totally going to fail” reframe your thoughts and feelings to “This test will be challenging, but I will learn the information because I am smart and capable of putting in effort”
Poor self-efficacy can lead to poor self-judgement, which is the comparison of performance with standards and goals Having a poor perception of abilities can lead to negative self-talk, influencing the internal feedback used to measure performance against standards. This can disrupt the cyclical nature of self-regulation, influencing motivation for future goal setting and perceived self-efficacy.